External Form (Sonnets) #1: The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus p.1027
In the first eight lines or octave of this sonnet, the Statue of Liberty or "Mother of Exile" is described. In the sonnet, the Statue of Liberty is idolized into the "beacon-hand glowing worldwide welcome" between the "twin cities frame" a.k.a. Manhattan and Brooklyn, serving as the beacon of hope and symbol of freedom to all the immigrants coming to Ellis Island. The title "The New Colossus" draws connection to the "brazen giant of Greek fame,"referring to The Colossus of Rhodes, the 100-ft statue of the sun god Helios and one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. This comparison shows the great symbol of power the statue is to the many immigrants "teeming (the) shore." In the last six lines (or sestet) the statue of liberty broadcasts the message, "Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free" to all the tired and battered immigrants entering the U.S. This poem held such a connection to the Statue of Liberty that in 1945, all fourteen lines of the poem were engraved on the main entrance of the Statue. This 8-6 sonnet form is usually called the Italian or Petrarchan sonnet. Named after the early master of this structure, the Italian poet Petrarch.
Free Verse: Poetry that does not rhyme or have regular rhythm
Imagism: A movement in early 20th-century English and American poetry which sought clarity of expression through the use of precise images
Sestina: Has thirty-nine lines in seven stanzas. The first six stanzas are six lines long with the seventh stanza having three lines. The last word of each line in the first stanza, is repeated in varying order in the next five stanzas, ending with a three line "envoi"/tornada involving all six repeated words.
Haiku: Japanese poem of seventeen syllables, in three lines of five, seven and five
Spenserian Sonnet: Edmund Spenser employed an a-b-a-b, b-c-b-c, c-d-c-d, e-e rhyme scheme - as evidenced in his Amoretti sequence. This form has not been particularly popular.
Monologue: A long speech by one person/actor, Greek-monologos: "speaking alone"
Pantoum: A series of quatrains rhyming ABAB, with four-line stanzas in which lines 2 and 4 of one stanza are used in lines 1 and 3 of the next
Villanelle: A pastoral or lyrical poem of nineteen lines, with only two rhymes throughout, and some lines repeated
Ode: A poem expressing noble feelings, often addressed to a person or celebrating an event
Elegy: A mournful poem, typically a lament for the dead
External Form: Poems organized into stanzas-groups of lines divided from other groups by white space on the page
Internal Structure: "Proper words in proper places"- Jonathan Swift
Language: The poets word choice or diction of a poem
Setting: Specific time and place
Situation: What is happening? Where? To whom? Why?
Speaker: Express ideas or feelings very different from the poet's own
Tone: The attitude of the speaker towards the subject